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Long term effects of ecstasy on the brain (INFOGRAPHIC)

Long term effects of ecstasy on the brain (INFOGRAPHIC)

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Ecstasy and the brain

Taken in low to moderate doses ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine or MDMA) heightens sensitivity, causes changes and impairment of cognitive, perception, and mental associations. But what happens when ecstasy is taken in higher doses or for longer periods of time? We review here and invite your questions or comments at the end.

How long is long term?

Long-term use = 2 x 10 mg/kg per day when taken consecutively for four days or more.

Chronic = Repetitive pattern following abuse that exhibits negative consequences to your:

  1. Health status
  2. Social interactions
  3. Financial state

What are typical doses of ecstasy?

  • Dose range in a series of pills: 10-150 mg
  • Average dose: 120 mg
  • Typical session: 50-700 mg
  • Long term damage: > 1.5-1.8 mg/kg body weight*

Specific effects of ecstasy on the brain

The nervous system

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  • catatonic stupor
  • depersonalization
  • heightened sensitivity
  • increased responsiveness to touch
  • influences sensitivity to pain
  • significantly changes the regulation of mood, aggression and sleep

Neurotransmitters

  • can damage serotonin producing neurons
  • increases dopamine levels
  • increases norepinephrine levels
  • influences the 5-ht 2 receptors
  • stimulant and psychedelic effects

Personality

  • agitation
  • aggression
  • impulsiveness
  • mood swings
  • restlessness

Behavior

  • excited calm or peace
  • feelings of well-being
  • heightened libido
  • panic attacks and severe anxiety
  • relaxation and euphoria

Psychological

  • amnesia
  • confusion
  • depression
  • disorientation
  • drug cravings
  • hallucinations
  • insomnia
  • memory impairment
Reference Sources: NIDA: The neurobiology of ecstasy
NIDA: Drug facts on MDMA, Molly, Ecstasy
NCBI: Human pharmacology of MDMA: pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and disposition.
NCBI: The pharmacology and toxicology of “ecstasy” (MDMA) and related drugs
NHTSA: Methylenedioxy methamphetamine
 *Risk of overdose increases when mixed with alcohol, marijuana or methamphetamines

 

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