The GUIDE TO HEROIN WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS. More on duration of symptoms and what to expect, when. A visual guide here.
Addicted to heroin? Here we discuss the treatment options for heroin. This can help you make a decision between inpatient or outpatient treatment settings. Find the best suitable option for your heroin addiction. Read more here.
How many people in the U.S. use heroin and what are their demographics? Check out this infographic to learn more about the face of heroin addiction as well as the risks and dangers that parallel increase in heroin use trends.
What’s really going on with opiates, opioids, and Rx painkillers in the U.S.? Expert Warren Rivera – a former DEA Special Agent with years of experience in drug diversion – explores here.
How can you know good addiction treatment from the bad? More here on the basics of heroin addiction treatment: assessment, help through detox, medical supervision, effective aftercare AND the individualized human element behind care.
Heroin addicts and even first time users are equally exposed to the risk of overdose. Read more on the effects of heroin overdose and find out how much heroin is too much, here.
Is investing in heroin addiction treatment worth the expense? Statistics about the cost of heroin use vs. addiction treatment programs in text and graphic form. See more here.
Using heroin is like playing Russian roulette with your life. Can dosing be controlled? We explore here.
Who seeks heroin addiction treatment and rehabilitation services within the United States? Discover national trends and statistics in pour infographic, and learn more about who seeks help for heroin, here.
A guide on what to expect during heroin rehab here.
What is heroin?
Heroin is a highly addictive drug derived from morphine, which in turn is derived from raw opium (the dried sap of opium poppy). In its pure form, heroin appears as a white powder with a bitter taste. However, heroin sold in streets can appear as off-white to brown powder, or as black sticky goo. Heroin has a chemical formula C21H23NO5 but is also known by names such as smack, H, skag, junk, brown sugar, horse, and black tar. Almost all heroin sold today are made illegally in clandestine laboratories.
To make heroin, dried opium sap pieces are first boiled in water with lime to precipitate morphine at the top. This morphine is then drawn off, reheated with ammonia and filtered and boiled again. This process yields heroin that appears as a brown paste.
In the medical sense, heroin is called diamorphine or diacetylmorphine. Heroin is taken into the body via injection (most common, with almost instant effects), smoking and snorting, and less commonly, by oral consumption. Heroin is highly addictive and is therefore illegal in many countries. When people take it even for a short period of time, a strong need for heroin is quickly developed and long term heroin addiction treatment is needed. But what makes heroin so addictive? And why it is illegal in many places?
Heroin is a strong opioid analgesic, like morphine. Heroin is considered a potent depressant because it reduces sensation of pain (anesthesia) and also slows breathing, lowers the heartbeat and blood pressure. What happens for heroin to take effect on the body?
When heroin is abused, it is transformed into morphine and goes straight to the brain in a very short span of time. However, unlike morphine, heroin has a markedly addictive effect after first few uses. Why? Because heroin effects include euphoria, an intense sense of well being.
In fact, heroin users feel a sense of relaxation plus intense acute euphoria (termed a ‘rush’) soon after administration of the drug. This rush may also be accompanied by flushing of skin, dry mouth with nausea, vomiting and severe itching. This rush lasts only for a short time, after which then it quickly subsides. To feel high again, the user must again take heroin, sometimes at a larger dose to overcome tolerance.
Another effect of heroin use is increased tolerance. Generally, heroin use causes tolerance quickly, which means you need to increase successive doses taken just to feel the same effect. Among habit-forming drugs, heroin is one of the most addictive. First time users of heroin can easily get addicted to it in a short period of time.
Heroin overdose is a medical emergency which happens when large amounts of heroin are suddenly introduced in the body. Injecting heroin makes you most susceptible to overdose because this method of delivery travels to and crosses the blood-brain barrier almost instantly. In the event of overdose, heroin sends the nervous system into delirium, disorientation and coma.
A person experiencing heroin overdose may manifest symptoms such as:
- bluish fingernails
- discolored tongue
- disorientation and delirium
- dry mouth
- pinpoint pupils
- shallow or no breathing, or slow and difficult breathing
- weak pulse, and low blood pressure
Heroin overdose is always a potential threat to life, and therefore must be addressed as soon as possible. When heroin overdose is suspected, you should call your local emergency phone hotline or national poison control center.
A person who you suspect is experiencing heroin overdose must be kept constantly awake, or must be awakened from sleep. Nothing should be put into their mouth due to risk of choking. If seizures occur, do not restrain the victim; move things away to prevent injury. Always stay with the victim until medical help arrives.
For more info on heroin’s addictive properties and treatment, see: